Instruction for Authors:

Table of Content:


Avicenna Journal of Dental Research (AJDR) aims at publishing semiannual, peer reviewed original research and topical reviews on all aspects of investigative and clinical dentistry and craniofacial research, including molecular studies related to oral health and disease. Although, the editors especially encourage international papers. The journal also aims at providing clinicians, scientists and students of dentistry with a knowledge transfer platform for rapid publication of reports through an international journal, which will be available free online until 2008.

Its scope, therefore, is broad, inclusive and international, but with an international outlook. All types of articles are subject to peer-review.

AJDR Article Types

The journal publishes the following types of contribution:


Editorials are the message of the AJDR and are written in-house by the journal's Editorial Board members. Editorials are preferably no more than 2000 words. These provide state of the art discussions on the AJDR main scopes. An unstructured abstract is required for these types of articles.

Review Article

These articles consist of Systematic Review, Meta-analysis, Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis, Meta-Synthesis, Scoping Review, Literature Review, and Narrative Review. These articles may be up to 7000 words excluding abstract, tables, and references. Inclusion and exclusion criteria for studies should be described in a flow diagram. The specific type of study or analysis, intervention, population, exposure, outcomes or tests should be described for each data source or article. Authors are to clearly cover the following topics in the method section: search strategy and selection criteria, data extraction, quality assessment, and data analysis. A structured abstract is required that should include: Background; Methods and Analysis; Discussion; Registry and number (if the protocol of these articles had been registered in a registry system).

For these articles authors need to complete and include a PRISMA-P checklist and upload as a supplementary file. Authors must ensure that all points are included and state page numbers where each item can be found.

Original Article

These articles must be of primary research, methodologically accurate, and relevant to Avicenna Journal of Dental Research. They should contain no more than 7000 words excluding structured abstract, tables, and references. Each manuscript should clearly state an objective or hypothesis; the design of study and methodology (including study setting, patients or participants, inclusion and exclusion criteria, sampling and data source); data analysis and interpretations; the main results of the study, discussing the results; addressing study limitations and the conclusion. For all original articles, a structured abstract is required.

Clinical Trials

This journal requires registration of randomized clinical trials in such public trial registries as those of the National Institutes of Health and the International Standard Randomized Controlled Trials. The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICJME) has established a requirement that all clinical trials be entered in a public registry before the onset of patient enrollment, as a condition of consideration for publication. The definition of a clinical trial as established by the ICMJE is any research project that prospectively assigns human subjects to intervention and comparison groups to study the cause-and-effect relation between a medical intervention and a health outcome. ClinicalTrials.gov or similar registries provide a vehicle which allows organizations and individuals to provide the data requested by ICMJE, which has adopted the World Health Organization (WHO) minimal registration data set. Clinical trials should have a NCT registration code or IRCT code or other similar codes (see below) which can be starting on July 2010. The journal will be including the identifier number in Clinical Trial articles. This rule is concluded from the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) Web site for their editorial and updates on the topic of registering clinical trials before publication of the results. The ICMJE recommends that the clinical trial registration number be included at the end of the abstract. A sample of general display format for the code obtained from ClinicalTrials.gov is: an alphabetic label of ClinicalTrials.gov followed by a slash and then an 11-digit alphanumeric string starting with NCT followed by eight numbers. For instance, an example in the Citation format display would be: ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT00000161.

Which trials registries are acceptable to this journal?

Phase III trials must be registered, and phase II trials are appropriate to register. Most phase I trials do not need to be registered. Please clearly state in the methods section of the manuscript the trial registration number including where the registration is publicly available. Visit the website of the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) for more information. This Journal accepts registration in the following registries:

  1. www.irct.ir
  2. www.actr.org.au
  3. www.clinicaltrials.gov
  4. www.ISRCTN.org
  5. www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/index/htm
  6. www.trialregister.nl

Short Communication

Short communications are short articles (mini original articles) that present original and important preliminary findings that do not warrant publication as a full-length article but are still worthy of publication. Short communications should have an un-structured abstract and should not be more than 4000 words including references and up to three tables or figures. The main text should be sub-divided into background, methods, results, and discussion, but should be written as concisely as possible.

Letter to Editor

We welcome short letters with topics of interest to the AJDR readership. These letters should not exceed 700 words including only one table or figure, references and the main text. No abstract is required for these articles.

Please insert the type of your manuscript on top of the Title Page and Main Manuscript.

Ethics in Publishing

As AJDR follows the guidelines of Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), for information on this matter in publishing and ethical guidelines please visit COPE.

Please note that any submission that has data collected from human subjects requires ethics approval. In this case, a clear statement to this effect must be made in any submitted manuscript presenting such research, specifying that the free and informed consent of the subjects was obtained. If your manuscript does not include ethics approval, your article will not be sent out for review. For qualitative articles it is mandatory that the following general principles be considered when submitting your manuscript.

  • Details of formal ethical approval should be stated in the main body of the article. If authors were not required to obtain ethical approval (as is the case in some countries) or unable to obtain attain ethical approval (as sometimes occurs in resource-poor settings) they should explain this. Please anonymize this information as appropriate in the manuscript, and give the information when asked during submission.
  • Procedures for securing informed consent should be provided.

- Responsibilities of authors:

Permission to use or publish an institution data: If you wish to publish the data/information of an institution, you should seek the institution permission and provide us with the signed permission once we ask for this. During submission you should inform us if you have obtained such permission.

Using Website information: Most materials on the Internet are protected by copyright. In such case you need to obtain permission from the website which owns the copyright. Some website materials, however, may not be original to the website and you need to identify the right-holder and seek permission.

- Informed consent

According to ICMJE guidelines patients or, in general research, participants have a right to privacy that should not be infringed without informed consent. Identifying information, including patients' names, initials, or hospital numbers, should not be published in written descriptions, photographs, and pedigrees unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and the patient (or parent or guardian) gives written informed consent for publication. Informed consent for this purpose requires that a patient who is identifiable be shown the manuscript to be published. Authors should identify individuals who provide writing assistance and disclose the funding source for this assistance.

- Conflict of interest

According to ICMJE guidelines, a conflict of interest may exist when an author (or the author's institution), reviewer or editor has personal or financial relationships that influence (bias) inappropriately his/her action (such relationships are also known as dual commitments, competing interests, or competing loyalties). These relationships vary from those with negligible potential to those with great potential to influence judgment, and not all relationships represent true conflict of interest. The potential for conflict of interest can exist whether or not an individual believes that the relationship affects his or her scientific judgment. Financial relationships (such as employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony) are the most easily identifiable conflicts of interest and the most likely to undermine the credibility of the journal, the authors, and of science itself. However, conflicts can occur for other reasons, such as personal relationships, academic competition, and intellectual passion.

Authors must make sure that they have declared any actual or potential conflicts of interest in their manuscript when submitting their work (if any). The corresponding author is responsible for confirming with the co-authors whether they have any conflicts to be declared or not (For further information please visit ICMJE).


AJDR uses the Cross iThenticate Plagiarism detector to screen submitted manuscripts for originality. Using this service, we can detect if a manuscript contains passages of text that appear in other publications or resources.

-AJDR Copyright

AJDR supports the Open Access initiative. Abstracts and full texts (PDF format) of all articles published by AJDR are freely accessible to everyone immediately upon publication. Users are free to copy and redistribute the AJDR published articles in any medium or format under the Creative commons license terms and conditions, but need to provide the appropriate bibliographic citation of AJDR published articles in their works.


Language (usage and editing services)

All publications in the AJDR are in English. Please write your text in good English. No language and copy-editing services are provided by the AJDR; hence, authors who feel their manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors are encouraged to obtain such services prior to submission. Authors are responsible for all costs associated with such services.

Submission Declaration and Verification

By submitting an article, you ensure that your work has not been published previously, except in the form of a conference abstract or as part of a published lecture or thesis for an academic qualification. This implies that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere and its publication is approved by all authors and responsible authorities where the work was carried out. It is highly important that if an acceptance is offered, your work will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other languages, including electronically without the written consent of the Hamadan University of Medical Sciences as the copyright-holder. Authors should not submit the same manuscript, in the same or different languages, simultaneously to more than one journal (For further information please visit ICMJE Recommendation).

Manuscript Submission

The submissions are acceptable via Journal website:http://ajdr.umsha.ac.ir/

Please read the following instructions carefully and follow them closely to ensure that the review and publication of your article is as efficient and quick as possible. Avicenna Journal of Dental Research (AJDR) only considers the materials submitted in electronic form via the journal's online submission system. The editorial office reserves the rights to return manuscripts that are not in accordance with the AJDR instructions for authors. Once you have prepared your manuscript according to the instructions below, you can then submit your work via our online submission form.

During the online submission procedure, authors are asked to provide: a) a statement that the manuscript has been read and approved by all authors (b) the name, affiliation, postal address, email address, telephone or fax number of the corresponding author who is responsible for negotiations concerning the manuscript; c) first and last name, email address and affiliation are also required for all contributing authors. Only those authors that their complete information has been submitted will be named in article's homepage once accepted. Once the manuscript is submitted, the corresponding author will receive an acknowledgement notification. Authors can check their manuscripts status via the online system.

All articles submitted to the AJDR are checked by the editorial office for conformance to instructions specified below. Non-conforming manuscripts will be returned to authors.

Manuscript File Format

Acceptable manuscripts' file formats include Microsoft Word. Do not submit your manuscripts in PDF format.

Text Style Guideline

Use A4 size. Text should be left-justified. Use 12-point font size. Use preferably Times and New Romans font. Use 1.5 line spacing. Use line and page number. Use Initial Upper Case for Title, Headings and Subheadings, Keywords, Affiliations, and Authors' Name. Make the titles, headings and subheadings bold or use different colour.

Preparing Title Page and Main Manuscript

Title Page

The title page should contain the following components:

  • Manuscript Title: please keep it as precise and concise as possible and ensure it reflects the subject matter
  • Each author's affiliation, email address, and qualifications
  • Corresponding author's name, qualification, affiliation, telephone number, and email address
  • A word count of the full article

Main Manuscript Components

The manuscript should follow through these sections: Abstract (no more than 300 words), , Background, Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusion, and References. However, it may be appropriate to combine the discussion and conclusion sections in some articles. Tables and Figures should be inserted within the textas close as possible to where they are referenced. Authors should not upload them as separate files.

- Abstract

Include a structured abstract of no more than 300 words for original articles and reviews. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. It should state briefly and clearly the purpose and setting of the research, the principal findings and major conclusions, and the article's contribution to knowledge. Abstracts should be prepared in AJDR style including background, methods, results and conclusion. Abstracts are not required for letters to editors.

- Keywords

Authors need to add up to 5 keywords separately into the online system during submission, and should accurately reflect the content of the article. Abbreviations/acronyms could be used with their expansions. The keywords will be used for indexing purposes.

Please prepare the keywords according to the following instructions:

  • 3-5 Keywords (single or phrases with no more than 3 words)
  • Contain words and phrases that suggest what the topic is about
  • Use variants terms or phrases that readers are likely to use
  • If the article focuses on a particular region (geographic, climatic, etc.), use that as a keyword
  • Use specific phenomena or issues as keywords (climate change, air pollution, etc.)


Highlights are a short collection of bullet points that convey the core findings and provide readers with a quick textual overview of the article. These three to five bullet points describe the essence of the research (e.g. results or conclusions) and highlight what is distinctive about it.

Highlights should be included on a separate page before abstract. Please adhere to the specifications below.

  • Include 3 to 5 highlights.
  • There should be a maximum of 85 characters, including spaces, per highlight.
  • Only the core results of the paper should be covered.

- Tables

  • Should be prepared left to right and cell-based
  • Table number always appears above the table. Leave 2 line spaces between the table and the caption.
  • Should be editable and upright on the page, not on sideways.
  • Should be prepared with real rows and columns and not aligned with tabs, returns, or spaces.
  • Multi-part tables with varying numbers of columns or multiple footnotes should be organized as separate tables.
  • Should be plain with NO colors, shading, or graphics.
  • Should not contain inserted text boxes, tables within tables or cells within cells.
  • Should be cited in numerical order upon their first mention.
  • Symbols and abbreviations should be defined immediately below the table, followed by essential brief description.
  • All tables should be inserted within the text as close as possible to where they are referenced. Authors should not upload them as separate files.

- Figures/illustrations

  • All figures/images must be cited within the main text in numerical order.
  • All figures/images must be centered. Figure number and legend always appear below the figure. Leave 2 line spaces between the figure and the legend.
  • Figures must be prepared in one of the following formats: Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF) for photography or microscopy, Encapsulated PostScript (EPS) for illustrations or diagrams, Tagged Image File Format (TIFF), EPS, or PS. Files prepared with Adobe Illustrator, Corel Draw or Adobe Photoshop should be uploaded in these native file formats.
  • All digitized images must be of high quality; that is, resolutions of at least 300 dpi for color figures, 600 dpi for greyscales and 1200 dpi for line arts.
  • Histograms should be prepared in a simple, two-dimensional format, with no background grid.
  • Make sure that any specific patient/hospital details are removed or blacked out (e.g., X-rays, MRI scans, etc).
  • If photographs of patients are used, they should not be identifiable. However, do not use a black bar to obscure a patient's identity.
  • Original data from which the images were prepared should be available, as the editors may request to see these data (e.g., Office, SPSS and other line art images).
  • Lettering in figures (e.g., labeling of axes) should be in lower-case type, with the first letter capitalized and no full stop. All text should be in a sans-serif typeface, preferably Arial with size 8 pt.
  • Avoid using the touch-up tools, such as cloning and healing tools in Photoshop, or any feature that deliberately obscures manipulations.
  • Graphics downloaded from Web pages should not be used.
  • Please remember that Vector drawing data is absent from these files: png, jpeg, tiff, or bmp. Subsequently resaving any of these files as a PDF or EPS will not produce a vector drawing in these files. Please supply the original EPS, ai, or PDF file versions of artwork.
  • Figures/images should be inserted within the text as close as possible to where they are referenced. Authors should not upload them as separate files.


All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be covered in the acknowledgement section. It should include persons who provided technical help, writing assistance and departmental head that only provided general support. Financial and material support should also be acknowledged.

- References

  • Arrange references as a simple list at the end of your manuscript based on our EndNote style
  • Authors are responsible for the accuracy of cited references and these should be checked before the manuscript is submitted.
  • Only one publication can be listed for each number.
  • Published conference abstracts, numbered patents and preprints on recognized servers may be included in reference lists, but text, grant details and acknowledgements may not citing in the text.
  • Cite references in the text, tables, or figures in consecutively numerical order by means of superscript Arabic numerals. It is acceptable for a reference to be cited only in a table or a figure legend and not in the text if it is in sequence with references cited in text.
  • Two references are cited with a comma and no space. Three or more consecutive references are cited in a range with dashes.
  • References in tables, figures, and panels should be in numerical order according to where the item is cited in the text.
  • Please note that if references are not cited in order the manuscript may be returned for amendment before it is passed on to the Editor for assessment.
  • Only articles published or in press should be included in the reference list. Personal communications or unpublished data must be cited in parentheses in the text with the name(s) of the source(s) and the year. Authors should request permission from the source to cite unpublished data.
  • In reference list:

List the surnames and initials of first names of all authors if there are 6 or fewer; otherwise list the first 3 and add 'et al.' Use one space only between words up to the year and then no spaces. The journal title should be in italic and abbreviated according to the style of PubMed. If the journal is not listed in PubMed, then it should be written out in full. Check journal abbreviations using PubMed.

Examples of AJDR End Note Style:

Journal article (1-6 authors)

Nakhostin A, Meighani G. Leukemia and its Oral Manifestations in Children Younger than 12 Years Referred to Tehran Pediatric Hospitals, Avicenna J Dent Res. 2016 ;8(4):e29995. doi: 10.17795/ajdr-29995.

Journal article (more than 6 authors)

Rose ME, Huerbin MB, Melick J, Marion DW, Palmer AM, Schiding JK, et al. Regulation of interstitial excitatory amino acid concentrations after cortical contusion injury. Brain Res. 2002;935(1-2):40-6.


Ford MJ, Munro JF. Introduction to Clinical Examination. 7th ed. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone; 2000.

Book Section

Meltzer PS, Kallioniemi A, Trent JM. Chromosome Alterations in Human Solid Tumors. In: Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW, editors. The Genetic Basis of Human Cancer. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002. p. 93-113


Gaudin S. How moon landing changed technology history [Internet]. Computerworld UK. 2009 [cited 15 June 2014]. Available from: http://www.computerworlduk.com/in-depth/it-business/2387/how-moon-landing-changed-technology-history/


Weisbaum LD. Human sexuality of children and adolescents: a comprehensive training guide for social work professionals [master's thesis]. Long Beach (CA): California State University; 2005.

Conference proceedings

Chu H, Rosenthal M. Search engines for the World Wide Web: a comparative study and evaluation methodology. Paper presented at: American Society for Information Science 1996 Annual Conference; October 19 24, 1996; Baltimore, MD. http://www.asis.org/annual-96/electronicproceedings/chu.html. Accessed February 26, 200

- Statistics

For the reporting of statistical analyses please consider the following points:

  • Focus the statistical analysis at the research question.
  • Report simple analyses first, then more sophisticated results.
  • Provide information about participation and missing data.
  • As much as possible, describe results using meaningful phrases (E.g., do not say "beta" or "regression coefficient", but "mean change in Y per unit of X"). Provide 95% confidence intervals for estimates.
  • Report the proportions as N (%), not just %.
  • Maintain the consistency of reporting all decimal places across the manuscript (either one decimal or two decimal places).
  • Report p values with 2 digits after the decimal. e.g. 0.54, 0.03.
  • Always include a leading zero before the decimal point (e.g. 0.32 not .32).

- Abbreviations and Symbols

Use only standard abbreviations; use of nonstandard abbreviations can be confusing to readers. Avoid abbreviations in the title of the manuscript. The spelled-out abbreviation followed by the abbreviation in parenthesis should be used on first mention unless the abbreviation is a standard unit of measurement.


All contributing authors should qualify for authorship. The order of authorship should be a joint decision of the co-authors. Sufficient participation in the work is of utmost importance. Authorship credit should be based on substantial contribution to conception and design, execution, or analysis and interpretation of data. All authors should be involved in drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, must have read and approved the final version of the manuscript and approve of its submission to this journal. Any change in authorship following initial submission would have to be agreed by all authors as would any change in the order of authors (For further information please visit ICMJE).

Important Note:The Authorship Form should be signed by all authors.


The corresponding author will receive an e-mail with a PDF file of the typeset pages attached. Proofs should be checked carefully and corrected if necessary because it is the authors' responsibility to ensure there are no errors. Changes or additions to the edited manuscript cannot be allowed at this stage. The corrections should be sent to the editorial office within one week. Proofs not returned to the editorial office within one week of the date of submission may be held over to the next issue.

The Editors reserve the right to make minor grammatical and other changes at any stage before publication. These are sometimes necessary to make the paper conform to the general style of the Journal.


All AJDR routine publications are free of charge.

Additional Resources

Pleases download the additional resources for further consideration. These include:

Authorship Form

AJDR Office:

Postal address: Faculty of Dentistry, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Shaheed Fahmideh Ave., Hamadan, IR Iran;
Postal code: 65178-38677;
Tel: +98 81 38381795

Editor in Chief's Email: editor@avicennajdr.com