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Submitted: 22 Jan 2021
Accepted: 20 Apr 2021
ePublished: 29 Jun 2021
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Avicenna J Dent Res. 2021;13(2): 62-66.
doi: 10.34172/ajdr.2021.12
  Abstract View: 101
  PDF Download: 64

Original Article

Effect of Cigarette Smoking on Periodontal Status of Diabetic Patients

Ilnaz Farhoodi 1 ORCID logo, Soheil Parsay 2 ORCID logo, Somayeh Hekmatfar 3 ORCID logo, Sahar Musavi 4 ORCID logo, Zahra Mortazavi 5* ORCID logo

1 Periodontist, Assistant Professor of Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran.
2 Dental Student, Faculty of Dentistry, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran.
3 Pediatric Dentist, Associated Professor of Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran.
4 Prosthodontist, Assistant Professor of Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran.
5 Dental Student, Faculty of Dentistry, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran.
*Correspondence to Zahra Mortazavi, Zipcode: 5618635715, Tel: +989144977833, Email: Mortazavizahra66@ gmail.com

Abstract

Background: Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of the tooth-supporting structures that can lead to periodontal destruction and tooth loss. It is also a common complication of diabetes mellitus (DM) and tobacco smoking. In this regard, this study aimed to assess the effect of smoking on periodontal disease in diabetic patients.

Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 80 diabetic patients who were referred to the clinics of the Department of Periodontics of Ardabil University of Medical Sciences from October 2015 to April 2016. Participants were enrolled in this study in four groups (n=20). Groups 1 and 2 included smoker diabetic patients and 20 non-smoker diabetics, respectively. In addition, groups 3 and 4 served as the control groups and included healthy smoker and non-smoker individuals, respectively. The plaque index (PI), clinical probing depth (CPD), clinical attachment level (CAL), and bleeding on probing (BOP) were measured in the four groups.

Results: The four groups were significantly different regarding the PI and CPD (P<0.05). The mean PI was higher in group 1 compared to groups 2 and 3. The highest mean CAL was recorded in group 1. Finally, non-diabetic smokers experienced the lowest mean BOP compared with other groups.

Conclusion: DM and tobacco smoking are the known major risk factors for periodontal disease, and the interaction effect of the two factors can aggravate the periodontal status in diabetic patients. Thus, dentists can take an important step in the healthcare system by encouraging their patients to control their DM and quit smoking.


Keywords: Periodontitis, Diabetes Mellitus, Smoking
Citation: Farhoodi I, Parsay S, Hekmatfar S, Musavi S, Mortazavi Z. Effect of Cigarette Smoking on Periodontal Status of Diabetic Patients. Avicenna J Dent Res. 2021;13(2):62-66. doi: 10.34172/ajdr.2021.12.
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