Submitted: 23 Mar 2021
Revision: 04 May 2021
Accepted: 27 Jul 2021
ePublished: 29 Mar 2022
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Avicenna J Dent Res. 2022;14: 10-13.
doi: 10.34172/ajdr.2022.02
  Abstract View: 48
  PDF Download: 38

Original Article

Prevalence of Developmental Defects of Enamel Among Children With Down Syndrome in Damascus, Syria

Ramah Eimad Makieh 1* ORCID logo, Chaza Kouchaji 2 ORCID logo, Saleh Al Kurdi 3 ORCID logo

1 Damascus University, Damascus, Syria
2 Head of Syrian Pedodontic Association, Professor Dr. Pedodontic Department, Damascus University, Damascus, Syria
3 Ph.D. Resident in Pediatric Dentistry, Pediatric Dentistry Department, Damascus University, Damascus, Syria
*Corresponding Author: *Corresponding author: Ramah Eimad Makieh, BDS., Preparing for Master’s Degree in Pediatric Dentistry; Damascus University, Damascus, Syria. Tel: +963991692667, Email: , Email: rmakkieh@yahoo.com


Background: Down syndrome (DS) is a disorder which has conditions that may contribute to the developmental defects of enamel (DDE) etiologies. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of DDE among children with DS.

Methods: This study cross-sectional observational study examined a total of 88 children with DS and 87 healthy children. A modified DDE index for screening surveys was employed in this regard. Demarcated opacities, diffuse opacities, dysplasia, and combinations between types were recorded, and finally, data were analyzed by chi-square and Mann-Whitney U tests using SPSS software.

Results: The prevalence of enamel defects in DS and control groups was obtained as 45% and 34%, respectively, with no statistically significant differences between the groups (P=0.139). The mean number of teeth with DDE was 2.48±3.79 and 1.09±2.11 in the DS and control groups, respectively. Based on the results, statistically significant differences were found between DDE means (P=0.009). Demarcated opacities were the most frequent type of enamel defects in both groups. Eventually, a statistically significant relationship was observed between diffuse opacities and DS (P=0.000).

Conclusions: In general, DS had no influence on DDE prevalence; however, it increases affected dental units. Diffuse opacities are more frequent among children with DS compared to healthy children. Further studies are required on the DDE prevalence in Syria.

Keywords: Down syndrome, Enamel defects, Children, Opacities

Please cite this article as follows: Makieh RE, Kouchaji C, Al Kurdi S.Prevalence of developmental defects of enamel among children with down syndrome in Damascus, Syria. Avicenna J Dent Res. 2022; 14(1):10-13. doi:10.34172/ajdr.2022.02
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