Submitted: 17 May 2013
Accepted: 29 Jun 2013
ePublished: 25 Dec 2013
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Avicenna J Dent Res. 2013;5(2): 49-55.
doi: 10.17795/ajdr-20218
  Abstract View: 619
  PDF Download: 765

Review Article

Smoking and Periodontal Diseases

Parviz Torkzaban 1*, Zahra Khalili 1, Narges Ziaei 1

1 Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran
Corresponding author: Parviz Torkzaban, Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Shaheed Fahmideh Ave., Hamadan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-8118354018, Fax: +98-8118381081 torkzaban@umsha.ac.ir


Context: The aim of this review was to examine evidences for the association between smoking and periodontal disease, to discuss possible biological mechanisms whereby smoking may adversely affect the periodontium, and to consider the effect of smoking on periodontal treatment.

Evidence Acquisition: A web-based search in PubMed and Google Scholar was performed to identify publications regarding the effects of smoking on various aspects of the periodontal disease process and to find an explanation for the possible association between smoking and the progression of periodontitis. We evaluated the articles published in English language between 1990 and 2013 with the search terms ‘‘periodontal health and smoking’’, ‘‘periodontal treatment and smoking’’, and ‘‘tobacco smokers and oral hygiene’’.

Results: Of the total yield of 145 identified publications, 72 were selected for this literature review. The results of the selected papers reflect the effect of smoking on oral hygiene, gingival inflammation and vasculature, gingival crevicular fluid, subgingival microflora in periodontitis, fibroblast function, genetic polymorphism, initiation and progression of periodontal disease and its effect on passive smokers, and host response to periodontal treatment.

Conclusions: Smoking is a significant risk factor for impaired periodontal health and treatment

Keywords: Periodontitis, Tobacco, Smoking, Gingival
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